Lake Superior State University
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Communications and SPC Administrator, Drinking Source Water Protection Division of the Sault Ste. Marie Region Conservation Authority (Ontario)

"Most natural science classes at LSSU offer students as much hands-on experience (lab hours) as lecture hours, which ensures that the university experience prepares us for the real world careers, whether you work at a desk or out in the field, or both. There are endless advantages and opportunities available to LSSU students due to its location on an international border.

I found my career path on campus when my advisor posted a job for the Bi-national Public Advisory Council (BPAC), a group dedicated to and overseeing the clean-up the St. Mary's River. I was able to gain experience and network on both sides of the border, ultimately finding full-time employment before I graduated with my biology degree."

Loralei Premo '07
Biology Major

School of Biological Sciences

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Investigat- ing the Use of QPCR: An Early Detection Method for Toxic Cyano- bacterial Bloom

Garrett Aderman

Harmful algal blooms (HABs), including cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs), are a global phenomenon. In the US, annual economic loss due to HABs was recently estimated at $82 million. Furthermore, the consensus amongst the scientific community is that the frequency and duration of CHABs in freshwater systems will increase as a result of climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. Due to the ability of some strains of CHAB genera to produce toxic compounds, larger and more sustained CHAB events will become an even greater threat to drinking water. Of all the known cyantoxoins, one of the most ubiquitous is microcystin (MCY). Humans are primarily exposed to cyantoxins through drinking water consumption and accidental ingestion of recreational water. The increasing risk presented by these toxins requires health officials and utilities to improve their ability to track the occurrence and relative toxicity. Current tracking methods do not distinguish between toxic and non-toxic strains. Biochemical techniques for analyzing the toxins are showing considerable potential as they are relatively simple to run and low cost. My goal was to develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method to measure the amount of mcyE gene in a Lake Erie drinking water and compare the levels of the mcyE to toxin produced. This is the first step to determining if the presence of mcyE of the mycrocystin synthestase gene cluster in Microcystits, Planktothrix and Anabaena cells can be used as the quantitative measurement in an early detection warning system for recreational and drinking waters.

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