“The material covered in LSSU's engineering program provided me a solid foundation for graduate studies. The systematic approach and communication skills needed to tackle engineering projects were taught and then practiced over and over again. In particular I appreciate the many hours spent by the faculty to develop oral presentation skills in each student. As a graduate student now, these skills have proven to be highly beneficial and, to my surprise, obviously not taught to the same extent at many other universities.”
Mark Reese, Mechanical Engineering 2005
Hawaii Natural Energy Institute
School of Ocean & Earth Science and Technology
Graduate Student, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Disputes Over Water Boundaries
the 1783 Treaty of Paris ended the American Revolution there were many disputes
between the United States and Great Britain concerning the boundary lines of
the Great Lakes. Originally the Upper Peninsula was of no use to the Americans
so there weren't many concerns over its boundaries until the War of 1812 when
hostilities resumed between the British and the Americans. Disputes began over
the border within the Saint Mary's River, which covered sixty miles of waterway.
War broke out amongst the fleets and armies stationed along the common borders.
Peaceful Agreement Reached
On December 24, 1814, President John Madison's administration
reached a formal agreement for peaceful determination of the boundary. This
ended the War of 1812. In the formal agreement, two commissioners, one from
the United States and one from Great Britain, would determine the boundaries
after surveying and mapping the land. The commissioners began their work
in May of 1817.
The British Departure from Mackinac
In the summer of 1815 the British surrendered Fort Mackinac
to the US and its garrison withdrew to Drummond Island to command the outlet
of the Saint Mary's River. From this vantage point the British government
sought to maintain its ancient contact with the tribes around the upper lakes
and to control the fur trade. The main concern was the Chippewa Indians of
Sault Ste. Marie. This tribe was dependent on the traders coming from the
west and east, trading food, tools, and weapons for furs and some medicines.
They saw no reason to welcome American rule under the new formal agreement
of 1814. The Chippewa instead chose to continue their allegiance to Great
Britain. Once they had undisputed control of the region the American government
moved to establish effective control over the northwestern tribes and region.
The American government decided to establish a garrison along all lake side
shores and end British dominance in trading. This would give countenance
to the operations of American fur traders. New garrisons were established
and built at Green Bay, Rock Island, Praire du Chein, and Fort Snelling and
Sault Ste. Marie. In order to build in the Sault the government had to first
receive consent from the Chippewa, since all their land had been returned
to them with the treaty with Indian tribes in 1815. The government sent Governor
Lewis Cass of the Michigan territory to conduct negotiations.
Cass arrived in Sault Ste. Marie in the summer of 1820
and held a council meeting with the Chippewa at which he explained the intention
of the government to establish a fort. After the explanation many members
of the tribes were angered. Sassaba, brother of Chief Shingabowassin, retrieved
a British flag from his village, marched up the hill and planted it there
in defiance of Cass. Cass took down this flag and threw it to the ground,
declaring that the American government could and would destroy their village.
Chief Shingabowassin was summoned by Susan Johnston and he then calmed his
brother down. It was the great chief who stopped blood shed from happening
that day. At a later council meeting sixteen square miles were ceded to the
American government for the Sault garrison.
Arrival of the Troops
In the summer of 1822 a battalion of the Second United
States Regiment arrived from Sackett's Harbor under the command of then-Colonel
Hugh Brady. The Fort was then constructed under Colonel Brady's direction.